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Breast cancer

此页面已被审核medical and editorial policy经过
Maurie Markman.,MD,CTCA的医学与科学总裁。

This page was updated on January 10, 2022.

skin cancer, breast cancer is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer among U.S. women, affecting one in eight women who live to the age of 80. An estimated 287,850 new cases of breast cancer will be diagnosed in U.S. women in 2022, according to the American Cancer Society. Breast cancer accounts for 15 percent of all new cancer diagnoses and 7 percent of all cancer deaths each year.

No breast cancer patient is the same. Get personalized treatment.

At Cancer Treatment Centers of America®(CTCA),我们的专家们有快速的培训和专业知识诊断乳腺癌and tailor a treatment plan to each patient’s unique needs. Our oncologists have experience with早期和复杂的乳腺癌, includingtriple-negative和炎症。CTCA®patients have access to tools such as advanced genomic testing and a wide range of breast cancer treatments, including breast-conserving surgery, immunotherapy and clinical trials. Breast cancer is such an important focus at CTCA that each of our hospitals has a Breast Cancer Center dedicated to treating patients with all stages of this complex disease.

This overview will cover the basic facts about breast cancer, including:

If you believe you may be experiencing symptoms of breast cancer and want to schedule an appointment for diagnostic testing, or if you’re interested in a second opinion for breast cancer at CTCA,call us或者chat onlinewith a member of our team.

What causes breast cancer?


The risk for developing breast cancer increases with age. According to the National Cancer Institute:

  • 被诊断患有乳腺癌的女性的平均年龄是62。
  • 从乳腺癌死亡的女人的平均年龄是68。
  • 乳腺癌是55岁和60岁之间患者患有最常见的癌症。
  • 大约10%的乳腺癌发生在45岁以下的女性中。

Women with a family history of breast cancer may be at a higher risk for developing the disease. For example:

  • 母亲,姐姐或女儿或乳腺癌的妇女可能会有两倍的风险。
  • 拥有或患有乳腺癌的兄弟,父亲或儿子的妇女也有更高的风险,以及具有或有卵巢癌的一级相对或多个亲属的妇女。
  • 在BRCA1或BRCA2基因中具有遗传突变的妇女风险较高。
  • Ashkenazi下降的犹太女性更容易在BRCA1或BRCA2基因中具有遗传突变。

Other factors that may increase a woman’s risk for developing breast cancer include:

  • Obesity
  • 乳房密度
  • Menstrual history
  • 久坐生活方式
  • Heavy drinking
  • Previous medical treatments

Race and ethnicity may also factor into a woman’s risk of developing, as well as the risk of dying, from breast cancer.

  • 白人女性更有可能发展乳腺癌而不是黑人女性,但是黑人女性更有可能死于这种疾病。
  • 黑人女性占45岁以下妇女的更多乳腺癌病例,并占上百分比三阴性乳腺癌病例(癌症不太常见的癌症)。
  • Asian, Hispanic and Native American women are less likely to develop breast cancer or die from breast cancer than Black or white women.


Miriam Trejo

Miriam T.


“我的经验一直是赋予权力。我是一步之级决策过程的一部分。我的护理团队正是 - 一个关怀人群 - 我和患者和员工一起制作了终身朋友。我的自然疗法提供者和员工我的营养师帮助我管理和防止副作用,教我如何购买和烹饪更健康的食物,并推荐的补充剂在治疗期间和后才能帮助我的康复。“





乳腺癌共同分享一个主要的东西 - 它们都在乳房中开始。大多数乳腺癌从管道中开始,牛奶到乳头,或在“小叶中”,制作母乳。 However, there are many different types of breast cancer, and the distinctions between them can be difficult to understand.

Breast cancer types are separated into two main groups: invasive or in situ (non-invasive). All kinds of breast cancer fall under one of these categories.

原位(非侵入性):When breast cancer is not invasive, it is most likely ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), a non-invasive type of breast cancer that starts in a milk duct and has not yet spread anywhere else. DCIS accounts for approximately 1 in 5 new cases of breast cancer. DCIS is also called stage 0 breast cancer, and most women have a positive prognosis at this stage. However, DCIS can progress and spread beyond the milk ducts, becoming invasive cancer.

Invasive:Invasive breast cancer refers to any breast cancer that spreads from the original site and “invades” other areas, like nearby breast tissue, lymph nodes or anywhere else in the body. Most breast cancers are invasive.

称为最常见的侵入性乳腺癌类型侵入性导管癌(IDC)。 IDC accounts for roughly 70 to 80 percent of all breast cancers. IDC starts in a milk duct and spreads, growing into other parts of the breast. With time, it may spread further, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.

Invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type, accounting for roughly 5 to 10 percent of all breast cancers. ILC starts in lobules—where breast milk is made—and then spreads into nearby breast tissue. Like IDC, it can metastasize.

还有许多其他侵袭性乳腺癌亚型 - 一些更具挑战性,以治疗或更容易治疗而不是更常见的IDC。其他,较不常见的乳腺癌包括:


  • Triple-negative breast cancer is an invasive breast cancer that is hard to treat. About 15 percent of all breast cancers are triple-negative breast cancer.
  • 炎症乳腺癌是一种罕见的侵袭性乳腺癌。大约1%至5%的乳腺癌是炎症乳腺癌。

Rare breast cancers that affect other types of cells in the breast, which are more aggressive and more challenging to treat:

  • Paget’s disease of the breastaccounts for about 1 to 3 percent of all breast cancers.
  • Agiosarcoma占所有乳腺癌的1%。
  • Phyllodes tumors make up less than 1 percent of all breast tumors, and the majority of them aren’t cancerous. However, these tumors tend to fall into one of three categories: benign (non-cancerous), malignant (cancerous) or borderline (somewhere between benign and malignant).

当乳腺癌从乳房蔓延到附近的淋巴结到身体的其他部位时,就像骨骼,肺,肝脏或大脑一样,它被称为转移性,最先进的breast cancer stage


  • 在乳房的那里,癌症开始:乳腺癌可以从管道,小叶或乳房的其他地方开始(很少)。
  • Hormone receptor status: Hormone receptor status refers to whether breast cancer cells have specific proteins that act as “receptors” and attach to the hormones estrogen and progesterone. If a patient’s breast cancer cells have hormone receptors, then the cancer is hormone receptor-positive, which means the hormones estrogen and progesterone are responsible for fueling the cancer’s growth. If there are no receptors, the cancer is hormone receptor-negative. Hormone receptor status is determined by testing breast cancer cells that are removed during a biopsy or surgery. A cancer’s hormone receptor status will influence how it’s treated.
  • HER2状态。 Breast cancers can be HER2-positive or HER2-negative, depending on the levels of a growth-promoting protein called HER2 within the cancer cells.
    • Her2阳性乳腺癌具有高水平的HER2蛋白,这意味着它们比其他一些类型的乳腺癌更容易生长,但也可以用专门设计用于靶向HER2蛋白的药物治疗。
    • 癌症的癌症是HER2-DIGAL的不响应同一药物。

学到更多about breast cancer types

Diagnosing breast cancer


If you’ve been diagnosed with breast cancer, the next step will be to partner with your care team on treatment options. It's important to spend time learning about the benefits and risks of each approach Your care team—which may include an oncologist, nurses, social workers and other supportive providers—is there for you to learn from and lean on.

  • Take notes about what you’ve learned, or ask a loved one to help write down questions and concerns.
  • Decide on a treatment plan jointly with your care team, when you’re ready.
  • 不要犹豫,寻求第二种意见或询问临床试验。
  • 考虑加入支持小组,您可以与其他也讨论乳腺癌的其他人交谈。


Diagnosis and treatment options at our CTCA Breast Cancer Centers

在乳腺癌中心每个CTCA hospitals, located across the nation, our cancer experts are devoted to a single mission—treating breast cancer patients with compassion and precision. Each patient’s care team is led by a medical oncologist and coordinated by a registered oncology nurse, who helps track the various appointments, follow up on tests and answer questions that come up along the way. Your care team also may include a breast surgeon, radiation oncologist, radiologist, pathologist and a plastic and reconstructive surgeon with advanced training in helping patients restore function and appearance. Fertility preservation and genetic testing are also available for qualifying patients who need them.










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Every patient has the option of meeting with a registered dietitian.




If you believe you may be experiencing symptoms of breast cancer and want to schedule an appointment for diagnostic testing, or if you’re interested in a second opinion for breast cancer at CTCA,call us或者chat onlinewith a member of our team.